Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like Chinait seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself.
Policies[ edit ] The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances made it mandatory for the signatory countries to "adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law" art.
Criminalization also applies to the "cultivation of opium poppy, coca bush or cannabis plants for the purpose of the production of narcotic drugs". Decriminalization usually applies to offences related to drug consumption and may include either the imposition of sanctions of a different kind administrative or the abolition of all sanctions; other noncriminal laws then regulate the conduct or activity that has been decriminalized.
Depenalisation usually consists of personal consumption as well as small-scale trading and generally signifies the elimination or reduction of custodial penalties, while the conduct or activity still remains a criminal offence. The term legalization refers to the removal of all drug-related offences from criminal law: The two most common positions are drug legalization or re-legalizationand drug decriminalization.
Drug legalization[ edit ] Drug legalization calls for a return to the preth century situation in which almost all drugs were legal. This would require ending government-enforced prohibition on the distribution or sale and personal use of specified or all currently banned drugs.
Proposed ideas range from full legalization which would completely remove all forms of government control, to various forms of regulated legalization, where drugs would be legally available, but under a system of government control which might mean for instance: The regulated legalization system would probably have a range of restrictions for different drugs, depending on their perceived risk, so while some drugs would be sold over the counter in pharmacies or other licensed establishments, drugs with greater risks of harm might only be available for sale on licensed premises where use could be monitored and emergency medical care made available.
Examples of drugs with different levels of regulated distribution in most countries include: Full legalization is often proposed by groups such as libertarians who object to drug laws on moral grounds, while regulated legalization is suggested by groups such as Law Enforcement Against Prohibition who object to the drug laws on the grounds that they fail to achieve their stated aims and instead greatly worsen the problems associated with use of prohibited drugs, but who acknowledge that there are harms associated with currently prohibited drugs which need to be minimized.
Not all proponents of drug re-legalization necessarily share a common ethical framework, and people may adopt this viewpoint for a variety of reasons.
In particular, favoring drug legalization does not imply approval of drug use. Proponents of drug decriminalization generally support the use of fines or other punishments to replace prison terms, and often propose systems whereby illegal drug users who are caught would be fined, but would not receive a permanent criminal record as a result.
A central feature of drug decriminalization is the concept of harm reduction. Drug decriminalization is in some ways an intermediate between prohibition and legalization, and has been criticized as being "the worst of both worlds", in that drug sales would still be illegal, thus perpetuating the problems associated with leaving production and distribution of drugs to the criminal underworld, while also failing to discourage illegal drug use by removing the criminal penalties that might otherwise cause some people to choose not to use drugs.
However, there are many that argue that the decriminalization of possession of drugs would redirect focus of the law enforcement system of any country to put more effort into arresting dealers and big time criminals, instead of arresting minor criminals for mere possession, and thus be more effective.
The drugs are still illegal, the police just handles the situation differently. This also decreases the amount of money the government spends fighting a war on drugs and money spent keeping drug users incarcerated.
Portugal is the first country that has decriminalized the possession of small amounts of drugs, to positive results. Economics[ edit ] There are numerous economic and social impacts of the criminalization of drugs. Prohibition increases crime theft, violence, corruption and drug price and increases potency.
Milton Friedman estimated that over 10, deaths a year in the US are caused by the criminalization of drugs, and if drugs were to be made legal innocent victims such as those shot down in drive by shootings, would cease or decrease. The economic inefficiency and ineffectiveness of such government intervention in preventing drug trade has been fiercely criticised by drug-liberty advocates.
|Comparison USA-Germany||Posted on April 27, by Scott Alexander I.|
|Indian, Chinese, & Japanese Emperors||Democracy There are many differences between the two countries in their approach to democracy.|
|Debate Topic: Capital Punishment (death penalty) should be legal in all states | attheheels.com||There are many hundreds more, in fact each of the foundations puts out its own publication. Given the number of foundations run by the Tavistock Institute and the Club of Rome, a partial listing is all we can include here.|
|Same-sex marriage in the United States - Wikipedia||Financial costs to taxpayers of capital punishment is several times that of keeping someone in prison for life.|
|Recent Opinions||Immigration Roger Daniels Immigration and immigration policy have been an integral part of the American polity since the early years of the American Republic. Until late in the nineteenth century it had been the aim of American policy, and thus its diplomacy, to facilitate the entrance of free immigrants.|
The War on Drugs of the United States, that provoked legislation within several other Western governments, has also garnered criticism for these reasons.Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, should be legal in all states.
Currently, it is only legal in 32 states. Sometimes, the ultimate crime deserves the ultimate punishment.
A subjective comparison of Germany and the United States I grew up in Germany, lived there for 26 years, then moved to the United States in When executions went down, the number of murders went up.
Looking at the data from , the murder rate went from per , population in to per , population in , as executions went to zero during the period the Supreme Court declared capital punishment unconstitutional.
Execution resumed in As you can see, the murder rate once again declined. Currently 32 states have capital punishment laws on the books.
The death penalty was, briefly, rendered essentially illegal in the United States by the Supreme Court case Furman v. Donner’s book The Age of Surveillance. For his part, Donner thanks Neier for helping prepare his book, The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America’s Political Intelligence System.A blurb from Neier is featured on the book flap, which quotes him as saying, “Frank Donner knows more about the theory and practice of political surveillance than anyone else.
Emperors of the Sangoku,, the "Three Kingdoms," of India, China, & Japan. India and China are the sources of the greatest civilizations in Eastern and Southern Asia. Their rulers saw themselves as universal monarchs, thereby matching the pretensions of the Roman Emperors in the West.
The only drawbacks to their historical priority were that India suffered a setback, when the Indus Valley.