Essay on Medical Ethics Essay on Medical Ethics Moral management is always important in organizations, especially nowadays people are more sensitive to the issue of ethical behavior on both organization level and individual level in workplace. Healthcare today has become an increasingly complex and troubling enterprise for patients, families, healthcare professionals, and society. Moral management of healthcare organization, human treating human anatomically, physically and mentally, is more different and important than other the other common business. A real ethical story that was happened in U of M was presented here that involved some ethical issue on the individual and organizational behavior within the healthcare organization.
Sydney, Australia Advocates of legalised euthanasia usually insist that they only want voluntary euthanasia VE - they say they are as opposed to the taking of life without the subject's knowledge or consent, that is, non-voluntary euthanasia NVEas anyone else.
Some do extend their advocacy to some examples of NVE, such as seriously deformed newborns 1where consent would not be possible, but this is not usual. It is widely accepted that sufficient protection against the unwanted extension of VE to NVE would be ensured by the inclusion of legal provisions to guarantee this.
As safeguards, clauses are proposed that would require the doctor to be satisfied that the patient's request was freely made and sufficiently informed, that there was no psychological abnormality such as depression, and possibly by requiring psychiatric consultation, that more than one doctor be involved in the decision that it was medically appropriate to take life in the circumstances, and that there be adequate documentation.
It is also common to find lawyers who declare that such laws would be feasible to devise, though it is less common to find actual draft laws published for discussion. In one sense, those lawyers are correct when they say such law would be possible - but they stop short of addressing the question of whether they would be safe, in practice.
It is uncommon to find any analysis that assesses the effectiveness of the so-called safeguards. By contrast, overwhelming evidence is now available in the published reports of a number of independent committees of inquiry into the consequences of legalising VE, which all concluded that NO such law could be guaranteed to be safe against the likelihood of abuse.
In fact, no committee set up for this purpose has ever reached any conclusion other than prohibition of legalisation.
To discover the many reasons why these committees all reached the same conclusion, in three instances unanimously, that every such law would be flawed, the author's paper on the matter may Care ethics essay consulted 2. Though the first of these reports appeared in and the last intheir arguments are so compelling that no criticism of them has ever been published.
Until and unless it can be shown that their common conclusion is unwarranted, they must be Care ethics essay as having established the truth. This seems to some to be such an unexpected development, and so contrary to what is confidently often asserted, that it barely seems credible.
The commonest and most serious form of abuse of any euthanasia law would be the endangering or the actual taking of the lives of some of the other terminally ill or disadvantaged groups of the sick or disabled who did not want their lives taken.
That is, the apparently strict control over the practice of VE would be illusory, and in the worst case, acceptance of VE would lead to the practise of NVE. Additionally, since concealment would be easy to carry out, and hence correspondingly difficult to discover, a truly compassionate society must rate the risk as too high to be acceptable.
This common finding by each committee is consistent with what had already been predicted many times, namely that NVE is such a logical extension of VE that its occurrence should be regarded more as a fulfilled expectation than a matter for surprise.
NVE, like VE, is also thought by its practitioners to be compassionate and benevolent, not malicious or malevolent. Since nobody would take a life they valued, in each instance of VE or NVE the ultimate justification is that the particular life no longer has sufficient value to mandate its continuance.
Such reasoning would be incompatible with recognising the equal, inherent dignity of every person, as that dignity is declared in statements of human rights to attach to every life, without exception. That view of human dignity is also the one that provides the basis in criminal law for the provision of universal protection for every innocent human life, without exception.
Hence, both practices are radically incompatible both with what needs to be acknowledged if we are to live well and peaceably with each other and with the very notion of justice in society, since justice is founded on and exists to respect equal dignity.
It may be objected that these arguments are theoretical and do not necessarily apply to the actual decision-making required in medical practice at or near the end of life.
Thus, it is said doctors are not monsters who would suddenly begin to take life indiscriminately, and the risk of extension of one euthanasia practice to the other is overstated and no more than scare mongering, for which, in any case, there is no evidence.
The difficulty with that position is that the evidence for NVE at present is readily found, even though it is carried out in secret and to an unknown extent. Dutch euthanasia has been known to be commonly practised sincewhen a court determined that a doctor, who had killed her mother who was dying and had requested euthanasia, was guilty but that her action was justified.
At her trial, evidence was given on her behalf that she was doing no more than what was already common but unpublicised. The court also described circumstances in which it thought that doctors may be excused after euthanasia. There ensued many years during which the Dutch maintained that euthanasia was closely supervised and controlled by the authorities, while some well informed outsiders maintained that this was certainly not the case, and that abuse was already common and extended as far as medical life-taking without the patient's consent.
During this period, even though VE was the only practice publicly discussed, official support for NVE could be readily found in the Netherlands. The State Commission on Euthanasia in had recommended that NVE should not be an offence, if carried out in the context of 'careful medical practice', though that term was not defined 3.
Ina Royal Dutch Medical Association KNMG working party condoned euthanasia for deformed infants, in some instances thinking it might be compulsory 3. Ina KNMG committee condoned the killing of patients in persistent coma 3.
Dutch euthanasia practices were first officially examined in the Remmelink Report of which was based on medical practice throughout 4for which the statistical study was done by van der Maas and others 5.
This study was later repeated and its findings were reported in 6. Inby adopting the narrow definition of euthanasia only as 'active termination of life upon the patient's request', there were 2, instances of euthanasia in the year of the study, or 1. When, however, to these are added instances of life-taking without request and intentionally shortening the lives of both conscious and unconscious patients, the figures for which are found in the statistical study, the conclusions are dramatically altered.
Thus, there were up to 23, instances of doctors intending, by act or omission, to shorten life. While NVE is generally thought of, and defined, as taking the life of an incompetent patient who could not choose at the time, these figures include another and unexpected category of NVE as killing practised on persons who were competent - those who could have been consulted, but were not.
One observer who has closely studied Dutch euthanasia estimated that the Dutch statistics allow for the possibility that there were 'about five thousand cases in which physicians made decisions that might or were intended to end the lives of competent patients without consulting them'.Dec 11, · Medical Ethics Essays (Examples) Filter results by: Essay Paper #: Ethics in Health Care The role of ethics within the medical profession is extremely important and it is extremely necessary to abide by a high standard of ethical behavior while working in this industry.
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