Flying metal fragments damaged walls, the ceiling and other equipment.
If the same soil is Centrifugation lab report in model and prototype, Reference: Value of Centrifuge in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Large Earthquakes are infrequent and unrepeatable but they can be devastating. All of these factors make it difficult to obtain the required data to study their effects by post earthquake field investigations.
Instrumentation of full scale structures is expensive to maintain over the large periods of time that may elapse between major temblors, and the instrumentation may not be placed in the most scientifically useful locations. Even if engineers are lucky enough to obtain timely recordings of data from real failures, there is no guarantee that the instrumentation is providing repeatable data.
In addition, scientifically educational failures from real earthquakes come at the expense of the safety of the public. Understandably, after a real earthquake, most of the interesting data is rapidly cleared away before engineers have an opportunity to adequately study the failure modes.
Centrifuge modeling is a valuable tool for studying the effects of ground shaking on critical structures without risking the safety of the public. The efficacy of alternative designs or seismic retrofitting techniques can compared in a repeatable scientific series of tests. Verification of Numerical Models Centrifuge tests can also be used to obtain experimental data to verify a design procedure or a computer model.
The rapid development of computational power over the last two decades has revolutionized engineering analysis. Many computer models have been developed to predict the behavior of geotechnical structures during earthquakes. Before a computer model can be used with confidence, it must be proven to be valid based on experimental data.
The meager and unrepeatable data provided by natural earthquakes is usually insufficient for this purpose. Verification of the validity of assumptions made by a computer program is especially important in the area of geotechnical engineering due to the complexity of soil behavior. Soils exhibit highly non-linear behavior, their strength and stiffness depend on their stress history and on the water pressure in the pore fluid, all of which may evolve during the loading caused by an earthquake.
The computer models which claim to be able to simulate these phenomena are very complex and require extensive verification. The centrifuge is useful for verifying assumptions made by a computer model. If the results show the computer model to be inaccurate, the centrifuge test data provides some insight into the physical processes which in turn stimulates the development of better computer models.Lab Report on Microscopy Michael Goerz, Anton Haase September GP II Tutor: M.
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