A number of factors may influence the control methods. The instruments of control and the Intensity of application of these Instruments vary from country to country, depending on what happens to be the principal reason for their Institution. For reasons of self interest, import licensing is generally more pervasive than export licensing.
Search goodExperience goodand Credence good There are many ways to classify services. One classification considers who or what is being processed and identifies three classes of services: The classification scheme is based on the ease or difficulty of consumer evaluation activities and identifies three broad classes of goods.
Consumers rely on prior experience, direct product inspection and other information search activities to locate information that assists in the evaluation process. Most products fall into the search goods category e.
Many personal services fall into this category e. Evaluation difficulties may arise because the consumer lacks the requisite knowledge or technical expertise to make a realistic evaluation or, alternatively because the cost of information-acquisition is prohibitive or outweighs the value of the information available.
Many professional services fall into this category e. These goods are called credence products because the consumer's quality evaluations depend entirely on the trust given to the product manufacturer or service provider.
Empirical studies have shown that consumers' perceived risk increases along the search-experience-credence continuum. Risk perception and risk reduction in service purchase decisions[ edit ] See also: Consumer behaviour Consumers are often nervous about air travel.
Although the risk of a negative outcome is low, the severity of consequences is high in the event of a service failure.
Perceived risk is associated with all purchasing decisions, both products and services alike. In terms of risk perception, marketers and economists argue that perceived purchase risk is higher for experience goods and credence goods with implications for consumer evaluation processes.
Any activity that a consumer undertakes in an effort to reduce perceived risk is known as a risk reduction activity. Risk perception has been defined as "a perception or feeling "based on consumer's judgments of the likelihood of negative outcomes uncertainty and the degree of importance of these outcomes to the individual [consequences]".
Most of us know that the probability of being involved in an airline disaster is low low uncertainty. Statistically, you are much more likely to be involved in a vehicular accident that an aircraft disaster. While the likelihood of personal harm arising from air travel is indeed very low, the consequences or an airline disaster however are very serious indeed high consequence.
Whereas, car travellers who have been involved in a traffic accident often walk away with minor injuries, the same cannot be said for airline travellers. It is the severity of the consequence rather than the uncertainty that plays into airline passengers' fears.
Consumers are constantly weighing up uncertainty and consequences to reach subjective evaluations of the overall risk attached to various purchase decisions. Risk perception drives the information search process.
Heightened risk perception may become a barrier to the natural progression of the purchase decision process and prevent customers from making a final brand choice.
Consumers who are risk-averse tend to spend more time and effort engaged in information acquisition in the pre-purchase stage and look for specific types of information that will alleviate their perceptions of risk. Typical risk relievers might include such things as a reliance on personal sources of recommendation including word-of-mouth referrals; reliance on known and trusted brands, reading manufacturers' specifications, limited scale trial, reliance on warranties or guarantees etc.
Risk relievers that are especially relevant in service settings include: Some evidence suggests that risk-averse consumers often use high price as a guide to quality.
Low prices may therefore be counter-productive since they suggest lower quality. Prestige pricing or premium pricing strategies are more likely to be indicated in service settings.
While some services cannot be fully trialled, marketers should think about limited scale trial or a virtual trial.PowerPoint Presentation: 1- 12 Table Demand States and Marketing Tasks 1.
Negative demand A major part of the market dislikes the product and may even pay a price to avoid it—vaccinations, dental work, vasectomies, and gallbladder operations, for instance.
Marketing intelligence is the province of entrepreneurs and senior managers within an agribusiness. It involves them in scanning newspaper trade magazines, business journals and reports, economic forecasts and other media.
Section E USPS modified to support the administration of U.S.
customs, export control, and export statistics laws with regards to mailpieces exported from the U.S. Services marketing is a specialised branch of marketing.
Services marketing emerged as a separate field of study in the early s, following the recognition that the unique characteristics of services required different strategies compared with the marketing of physical goods..
Services marketing typically refers to both business to consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) services, and. Management Accounting: Concepts, Techniques & Controversial Issues Chapter 1 Introduction to Managerial Accounting, Cost Accounting and Cost Management Systems.
James R. Martin, Ph.D., CMA Professor Emeritus, University of South Florida. MAAW's Textbook Table of Contents. Services marketing is a specialised branch of marketing. Services marketing emerged as a separate field of study in the early s, following the recognition that the unique characteristics of services required different strategies compared with the marketing of physical goods..
Services marketing typically refers to both business to consumer .