Penology essay

Their analysis of the new discourses, objectives, and techniques in penal policy has opened up important debates over the cast of recent trends in criminal justice and the nature of a risk society. In particular, they identify how crime is increasingly addressed through strategies of risk management based on actuarial techniques such as statistical distributions, probability calculations, and systemic goals to minimize offending. Instead, it takes crime for granted and accepts that deviance is widespread. Crucially, it rejects the traditional interventionist philosophies of reform, transformation, and reintegration and is instead concerned with identifying, classifying, and managing groups assorted by levels of dangerousness.

Penology essay

Penology essay

Who was his readership? A very good survey of this topic is Yunis from which I would like to quote the following illuminating passage: Other scholars, such as Morganhave also argued that Plato addressed in his writings both philosophical and non-philosophical audiences. It is true that in the Republic Plato has the following advice for philosophers: This interpretation is too extreme.

For him philosophy has a civic dimension. The one who makes it outside the cave should not forget about those who are still down there and believe that the shadows they see there are real beings.

The philosopher should try to transmit his knowledge and his wisdom to the others, and he knows that he has a difficult mission. But Plato was not willing to go as far as Socrates did. He preferred to address the public at large through his written dialogues rather than conducting dialogues in the agora.

He did not write abstruse philosophical treatises but engaging philosophical dialogues meant to appeal to a less philosophically inclined audience. The participants are historical and fictional characters.

Plato wanted his dialogues to look like genuine, spontaneous dialogues accurately preserved. How much of these stories and dialogues is fictional? It is hard to tell, but he surely invented a great deal of them.

References to traditional myths and mythical characters occur throughout the dialogues. His myths are meant, among other things, to make philosophy more accessible. Sometimes he modifies them, to a greater or lesser extent, while other times he combines them—this is the case, for instance, of the Noble Lie Republic b—dwhich is a combination of the Cadmeian myth of autochthony and the Hesiodic myth of ages.

There are also in Plato myths that are his own, such as the myth of Er Republic b8 or the myth of Atlantis Timaeus 26e4. Many of the myths Plato invented feature characters and motifs taken from traditional mythology such as the Isles of the Blessed or the judgment after deathand sometimes it is difficult to distinguish his own mythological motifs from the traditional ones.

The majority of the myths he invents preface or follow a philosophical argument: Plato refers sometimes to the myths he uses, whether traditional or his own, as muthoi for an overview of all the loci where the word muthos occurs in Plato see Brisson ff.

However, muthos is not an exclusive label. The myths Plato invents, as well as the traditional myths he uses, are narratives that are non-falsifiable, for they depict particular beings, deeds, places or events that are beyond our experience: Myths are also fantastical, but they are not inherently irrational and they are not targeted at the irrational parts of the soul.

Strictly speaking, the Cave is an analogy, not a myth. Most argues that there are eight main features of the Platonic myth. Most acknowledges that these eight features are not completely uncontroversial, and that there are occasional exceptions; but applied flexibly, they allow us to establish a corpus of at least fourteen Platonic myths in the Phaedo, Gorgias, Protagoras, Meno, Phaedrus, Symposium, Republic X, Statesman, Timaeus, Critias and Laws IV.

Dorion concludes that the Oracle story is not only a Platonic fiction, but also a Platonic myth, more specifically: Who invented the examination of the opinions of others by the means of elenchus?

We have a comprehensive book about the people of Plato: Nails ; now we also have one about the animals of Plato: Bell and Naas Anyone interested in myth, metaphor, and on how people and animals are intertwined in Plato would be rewarded by consulting it.

They are used to portray not just Socrates [compared to a gadfly, horse, swan, snake, stork, fawn, and torpedo ray] but many other characters in the dialogues, from the wolfish Thrasymachus of the Republic to the venerable racehorse Parmenides of the Parmenides.

Myth as a means of persuasion For Plato we should live according to what reason is able to deduce from what we regard as reliable evidence.

This is what real philosophers, like Socrates, do. But the non-philosophers are reluctant to ground their lives on logic and arguments.Bureau Of Jail Management And Penology.

Inter-Relation Between Criminology, Penology And Criminal Law Essay

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Cesare Beccaria: Cesare Beccaria, Italian criminologist and economist whose Dei delitti e delle pene (Eng. trans. J.A. Farrer, Crimes and Punishment, ) was a celebrated volume on the reform of criminal justice.

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In the introduction you indicate what is to be the central focus of your essay on a given text. This may be done in several different ways. Introduction. Cultural criminology is a distinct theoretical, methodological, and interventionist approach to the study of crime that places criminality and its control squarely in the context of culture; that is, it views crime and the agencies and institutions of crime control as cultural products or .

Cesare Beccaria | Italian criminologist |