Con Here are some facts against Teacher Tenure: Teacher tenure creates complacency because teachers know they are unlikely to lose their jobs.
The Classical Versions of the Design Argument a. For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them.
Ever since the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. So they are without excuse. Perhaps the earliest philosophically rigorous version of the design argument owes to St. We see that things which lack knowledge, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result.
Hence it is plain that they achieve their end, not fortuitously, but designedly. Now whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards Tenure argument end, unless it be directed by some being endowed Tenure argument knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is directed by the archer.
Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Article 3, Question 2. Accordingly, the empirical fact that the operations of natural objects are directed towards ends shows that an intelligent Deity exists.
This crucial claim, however, seems to be refuted by the mere possibility of an evolutionary explanation. If a Darwinian explanation is even coherent that is, non-contradictory, as opposed to truethen it provides a logically possible explanation for how the end-directedness of the operations of living beings in this world might have come about.
According to this explanation, such operations evolve through a process by which random genetic mutations are naturally selected for their adaptive value; organisms that have evolved some system that performs a fitness-enhancing operation are more likely to survive and leave offspring, other things being equal, than organisms that have not evolved such systems.
If this explanation is possibly true, it shows that Aquinas is wrong in thinking that "whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence. The Argument from Simple Analogy The next important version of the design argument came in the 17th and 18th Centuries.
Pursuing a strategy that has been adopted by the contemporary intelligent design movement, John Ray, Richard Bentley, and William Derham drew on scientific discoveries of the 16th and 17th Century to argue for the existence of an intelligent Deity.
William Derham, for example, saw evidence of intelligent design in the vision of birds, the drum of the ear, the eye-socket, and the digestive system.
It is noteworthy that each of these thinkers attempted to give scientifically-based arguments for the existence of God. David Hume is the most famous critic of these arguments. Look round the world: All these various machines, and even their most minute parts, are adjusted to each other with an accuracy which ravishes into admiration all men who have ever contemplated them.
The curious adapting of means to ends, throughout all nature, resembles exactly, though it much exceeds, the productions of human contrivance; of human designs, thought, wisdom, and intelligence.
Since, therefore, the effects resemble each other, we are led to infer, by all the rules of analogy, that the causes also resemble; and that the Author of Nature is somewhat similar to the mind of man, though possessed of much larger faculties, proportioned to the grandeur of the work which he has executed.
By this argument a posteriori, and by this argument alone, do we prove at once the existence of a Deity, and his similarity to human mind and intelligence. Since the world, on this analysis, is closely analogous to the most intricate artifacts produced by human beings, we can infer "by all the rules of analogy" the existence of an intelligent designer who created the world.
Just as the watch has a watchmaker, then, the universe has a universe-maker. As expressed in this passage, then, the argument is a straightforward argument from analogy with the following structure: The material universe resembles the intelligent productions of human beings in that it exhibits design.
The design in any human artifact is the effect of having been made by an intelligent being. Like effects have like causes. Therefore, the design in the material universe is the effect of having been made by an intelligent creator.
Hume criticizes the argument on two main grounds. First, Hume rejects the analogy between the material universe and any particular human artifact.In our (hopefully) final episode of Good Behaviour (for a while), Ian Samuel and Leah Litman discuss their favorite and least favorite moments of Judge Brett Kavanaugh’s confirmation hearing.
Tenure-Teacher’s Safeguard In , the first National Education Association was established in the United attheheels.com , Massachusetts introduced Teacher attheheels.com , New Jersey passed the first K Tenure Law (Herbert ).
Has been developed throughout the history, teacher tenure has achieved innumerable beneficial and secured laws for teachers. Matthew Chingos argues that ending teacher tenure is unlikely to have a substantial impact on the public education system on its own because administrators frequently do not make use of their.
The Atlanta University Publications (AUPs), edited mostly by W.E.B. Du Bois, are highly significant because they represent systematic, social-scientific inquiries into the condition and lives of African Americans a century ago. They are also known as "The Atlanta University Studies." The description posted with each publication below was .
Teacher tenure is the increasingly controversial form of job protection that public school teachers in 46 states receive after years on the job. For all of the changes in its history, the Supreme Court has retained so many traditions that it is in many respects the same institution that first met in , prompting one legal historian to call it, "the first Court still sitting.".